One of The Nicholson Foundation’s guiding principles is that health and human services are more effective when programs are data-driven and evidence-based. Following are a selection of key references that support our work in the healthcare and early childhood program areas.

Visit our What We Do page to learn about the Foundation’s major program areas. Visit our Projects page to learn about the organizations we fund.



  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. National healthcare quality and disparities reports: New Jersey.
  2. Arora S, Thornton K, Murata G et al. Outcomes of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection by primary care providers. New England Journal of Medicine 2011;364:2199-2207.
  3. Bonnie RJ et al. Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic: Balancing Societal and Individual Benefits and Risks of Prescription Opioid Use. The National Academies Press, July 2017.
  4. Budde K, Friedman D, Alli K, Randell J, Kang B, Feuerstein S. Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care in Two New Jersey Federally Qualified Health Centers. Psychiatric Services 2017;10.1176/appi.ps.20170024.

  5. Cohen DJ, Davis MM, Hall JD, Gilchrist EC, Miller BF. A Guidebook of professional practices for behavioral health and primary care integration: Observations from exemplary sites. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, March 2015.
  6. Collins C, Hewson DL, Munger R, Wade T. Evolving models of behavioral health integration in primary care. New York (NY): Milbank Memorial Fund, 2010.
  7. Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine. Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington (DC): National Academies Press, 2001.
  8. Davis K, Ballreich J. Equitable access to care—how the United States ranks internationally. New England Journal of Medicine 2014;371:1567-1570.
  9. Dowell D, Haegerich T, and Chou R. CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain — United States, 2016.  Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2016 65(1);1–49.
  10. Gerrity M. Evolving Models of Behavioral Health Integration: Evidence Update 2010-2015. New York (NY): Milbank Memorial Fund, 2016.
  11. Jiang HJ, Weiss AJ, Barrett ML, Sheng M. Characteristics of hospital stays for super-utilizers by payer, 2012. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Brief #190. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, May 2015. 
  12. Melek SP, Norris DT, Paulus J. Economic impact of integrated medical-behavioral healthcare: Implications for psychiatry. Arlington (VA): American Psychiatric Association, 2014.
  13. Mitruka K, Thornton K, Cusick S, Orme C, Moore A, Manch RA, Box T, Carroll C, Holtzman D, Ward JW; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Expanding primary care capacity to treat hepatitis C virus infection through an evidence-based care model—Arizona and Utah, 2012-2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014(18):393-398. 
  14. National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strategies for Addressing Asthma in Homes. May 2017.
  15. Schwartz R, Gryczynski J, O’Grady K, Sharfstein J, Warren G, Olsen Y, Mitchell S, Jaffe J. Opioid Agonist Treatments and Heroin Overdose Deaths in Baltimore, Maryland, 1995–2009American Journal of Public Health 2013; 103(5): 917–922.
  16. Townley S, Dorr H. Integrating Substance Use Disorder Treatment and Primary Care. National Academy for State Health Policy, February 2017.
  17. Trudnak T, Kelley D, Zerzan J, Griffith K, Jiang HJ, Fairbrother GL. Medicaid admissions and readmissions: Understanding the prevalence, payment, and most common diagnoses. Health Affairs 2014;33(8):1337-1344.  
  18. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of the Surgeon General. Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health. Washington (DC): HHS, November 2016. U.S. Surgeon General.
  19. Volkow ND, Frieden TR, Hyde PS, Cha SS. Medication-assisted therapies—tackling the opioid-overdose epidemic. New England Journal of Medicine 2014;370:2063-2066. 
  20. Edwards ST, Landon BE. Medicare’s chronic care management payment—payment reform for primary care. New England Journal of Medicine 2014;371(2049-2051). 
  21. Jiang HJ, Barrett ML, Sheng M. Characteristics of hospital stays for nonelderly Medicaid super-utilizers. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Brief #184. November 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.
  22. Kassler WJ, Tomoyasu N, Conway PH. Beyond a traditional payer—CMS’s role in improving population health. New England Journal of Medicine 2015(372):109-111.
  23. Kellermann AL, Vaiana ME, Hussey PS, et al. Flattening the trajectory of health care spending: Insights from RAND health research. Santa Monica (CA): RAND Corporation, 2012.
  24. Kocot SL, Dang-Vu C, White R, McClellan M. Early experiences with accountable care in Medicaid: Special challenges, big opportunities. Population Health Management 2013;16(Suppl 1):S4-S11.
  25. Porter ME. What is Value in Health Care? The New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 363:2477-2481.
  26. Sandberg SF, Erikson D, Owen R et al. Hennepin Health: A safety-net accountable care organization for the expanded Medicaid population. Health Affairs (Millwood) 2014;33(11):1975-1984.
  27. U.S. Government Accountability Office. Medicaid: A small share of enrollees consistently accounted for a large share of expenditures. Washington (DC): GAO, May 2015.  Report #: GAO-15-460.

  28. Krumholz HM. Big data and new knowledge in medicine: The thinking, training, and tools needed for a learning health system. Health Affairs 2014;33(4):1163-1170.
  29. Groves P, Kayyall B, Knott D, Van Kuiken. The “big data” revolution in healthcare. New York (NY): McKinsey & Company, Center for US Health System Reform, January 2013. (scroll to March 2013 listing for this publication)

Early Childhood Programs

  1. Barnett WS. Preschool education and its lasting effects: Research and policy implications. Boulder (CO) and Tempe (AZ): Education and the Public Interest Center and Education Policy Research Unit, University of Colorado at Boulder and Arizona State University, 2008.
  2. Campbell F, Conti G, Heckman JJ et al. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science 2014;343(6178):1478-1485.
  3. Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University. The foundations of lifelong health are built in early childhood. July, 2010.
  4. Heckman JJ. Investing in disadvantaged young children is an economically efficient policy. New York: Committee for Economic Development, Pew Charitable Trusts, 2006.
  5. National Institute for Early Education Research. State(s) of Head Start. December, 2016.
  6. Nores M, Barnett S. Access to high quality early care and education: Readiness and opportunity gaps in America. Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes Policy Report. New Brunswick (NJ): CEELO, 2014.
  7. Reynolds AJ, Ou S-R, Temple JA. A multicomponent, preschool to third grade preventive intervention and educational attainment at 35 years of ageJAMA Pediatrics 2018. Epub ahead of print doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.4673.
  8. Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, Ou RS, Arteaga IA, White BA. School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: Effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups. Science 2011; 333(6040):360-364.
  9. Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, White BA, Ou S-R, Robertson DL. Age-26 cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Center early education programChild Development 2011;82(1):379-404.
  10. Schweinhart LJ, Montie J, Xiang Z, Barnett WS, Belfield CR, Nores M. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study through age 40. Ypsilanti (MI): High/Scope Press, 2005. Also see HighScope. HighScope Perry Preschool Study.
  11. Shonkoff JP, Phillips DA. From neurons to neighborhoods. Washington (DC): National Academies Press, 2000.
  12. The Carolina Abecedarian Project.
  13. Yoshikawa H, Weiland C, Brooks-Gunn J et al. Investing in our future: The evidence base on preschool education. New York (NY): Foundation for Child Development, October 2013.
  14. Vogtman, Julie. Undervalued: A Brief History of Women's Care Work and Child Care Policy in the United States. Washington (DC): The National Women's Law Center, 2017.